Training and development is an important part of human resource management. This is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goal. It is all about the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities through professional development. If an organization have such efficient and effective occupants who can meet the requirements of the organization, training is not essential. If the case is different, it is necessary to raise their skill level by giving them training.
Before know more about it at first we must be clear about the difference between training and development. In fact Training usually refers to teaching operational or technical employees how to do the job for which they were hired. On the other hand teaching managers and professionals the skill needed for both present and future jobs is called development.
Why Training and development?
The significance of Training and Development includes: Optimum utilization of HR, Development of HR, Developing skills of employee, Increase productivity and Team spirit, Developing organizational culture and climate, Increase quality of work, Creating better corporate image, Increase profitability etc. Globalization and rapid technological changes taking place during the last quarter century made the job more complex and relatively increased the need of training.
Process of Training and development
The first step of training and development program process is assessing the training need and the training need of an organization are defined by measuring the gap between required level of competence and present level of competence. Analyzing the employee’s performance appraisal, analysis of job requirements, organizational analysis and employee survey may help to define the gap. For example, if a group of sales persons shows a poor performance, they might need customer care training. On the other hand if employees do not know how to operate the machinery necessary to do the job, a training program on how to operate the machinery is clearly needed.
After assessing the training and development need, the HR manager should design and develop a training program by setting specific and measurable goals specifying what participants are to learn.
Methods of Training
Training and Development program might be cognitive and behavioral. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information,demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. the various methods under behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development. The various methods that come under behavioral approach are:
- Games and simulations
- Business games
- Case studies
- Equipment stimulation
- In-basket technique
- Role plays
Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.
Methods of Management Development
Management development method is further divided into two parts:
On the job training –
The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on-the job Developments are:
3. Job rotation
4. Job instruction technique (JIT)
Off the job training –
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:
1. Sensitivity training
2. Transactional analysis
3. Straight lectures/ lectures
4. Simulation exercises
5. Case study
Selection of these methods depends on many considerations. If the HR manager wants to train his employee within the realistic office setting, then on the job training will be fine. He can also choose the option of giving off the job training to his employees outside the workplace to avoid on the job pressure. No matter which approach are used Training and development program should always be evaluated for a better outcome.